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Dogs + Treatment

  • Allopurinol is an oral medication typically used to prevent uric acid and calcium oxalate stones in dogs. It is also used off-label to treat leishmaniasis and gout in dogs and other species. Side effects are uncommon but may involve stomach upset. Caution must be taken when allopurinol is used in conjunction with certain other medications. It should not be used in pets with liver or kidney dysfunction or in red-tailed hawks.

  • Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive therapy that is used to examine, diagnose, and treat diseases and conditions that affect joints. It requires a specialized piece of equipment called an arthroscope which will allow your veterinarian to look inside the joint using a small fiber optic camera that is hooked up to a monitor. It often requires general anesthesia; however, small incisions in the joint allow for a quicker recovery than traditional methods allow. The recovery time will depend on the extent of the injury, but compared to traditional surgery, recovery time is generally much shorter.

  • Atovaquone is given by mouth and is used off-label to treat protozoal infections. Give as directed. Side effects are uncommon but may include stomach upset or skin rash. Do not use in pets that are pregnant. If a negative reaction occurs, contact your veterinarian as soon as possible.

  • Cefpodoxime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat skin infections in dogs. It is also used off-label in cats and to treat other types of infection. It is given orally in tablet or liquid form. Side effects are uncommon. If a negative reaction occurs, contact your veterinarian.

  • Cephalexin (brand names Rilexine®, Keflex®, Vetolexin®) is an oral antibiotic used to treat pyoderma and other bacterial skin infections in dogs and is used off-label in cats to treat pyoderma and other types of skin infections. It is sometimes used off-label to treat urinary tract infections in cats and dogs. Side effects of cephalexin are rare and usually mild.

  • Cetirizine is given by mouth and is used off-label to treat and prevent pruritus (itching) associated with atopic dermatitis, urticaria (hives), and insect bite reactions in cats and dogs. Give as directed. Side effects are uncommon but may include vomiting and increased salivation. Do not use it in pets that are allergic to it or hydroxyzine. If a negative reaction occurs, contact your veterinarian.

  • Exercise restriction refers to the act of intentionally limiting a pet’s physical activity. Veterinarians often recommend exercise restriction to allow a pet to heal after a surgical procedure or injury, although it may also be recommended to prevent worsening of a medical condition. Different circumstances require different degrees of exercise restriction, so your veterinarian’s guidance is essential when implementing exercise restriction.

  • Heartworm disease is serious and potentially life-threatening to dogs. Treatment involves several components to combat potential bacterial infection, kill the heartworm larvae (microfilaria), kill the adult heartworms, and then test to confirm successful treatment. Complete rest for a dog undergoing treatment is essential. The prognosis for dogs after heartworm treatment is generally good if the pet owner follows all veterinary recommendations closely.

  • Hepatozoonosis in dogs is caused by ingestion of one of two organisms: H. americanum and H. canis. Both parasites are more common in the southern United States. The clinical sign and treatments for dogs with hepatozoonosis differ depending on the parasite species causing the infection. In either case, with appropriate treatment, the prognosis is generally good.

  • Your veterinarian may prescribe rectal medication if your pet is unable to swallow oral medications or if a specific required medication cannot be effectively absorbed with oral delivery. The rectal tissues contain large numbers of blood vessels very close to their surface, which means that medications delivered to this area are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. Rectal medication is most commonly used to treat seizures.